Zeta Potential, AFM and water quality
If you have a solution of small particles such as a colloidal suspension of clay, or an oil colloidal suspension like milk or even red blood cells , all of the particles have a surface electrical charge. Normally the charge is negative, and when the particles have the same electrical charge they will repel each other to remain as a stable suspension. If the electrical charge density of the particles is changed this will have a profound impact on the way the particles and liquid behaves. If some of the particles are changed from negative to positive, they will become attracted to other negative particles, dissolved components will coagulate and small particles will flocculate. When this happens, the clay particles drop out of suspension and the water becomes clear, milk becomes butter, and blood starts to clot.
APF drops the zeta potential of water, small particles become large particles and either drop out of suspension or are removed by AFM active filter media.The zeta potential of water or a liquid relates to the electrical charge density of particles and dissolved components in the liquid. The particles will predominantly have a negative charge, but some will be positive while others will have a neutral charge.
The Zeta potential does not only control particles in suspension or chemicals dissolved in water, it will also dictate how the water molecules line up and behave with each other.
This has the effect of changing the hydrogen bonding or surface tension of the water. Also if you can change the hydrogen bonding you then influence how easy it is for water to pass through desalination membranes, you reduce the amount of energy required to pump water through pipes, and blood flows through your veins more easily. Again relating this to water our ZPM zeta potential mixer drops the zeta potential of the water, this has the effect of increasing the redox potential, and the water becomes self sterilizing.
Hydrogen bonding and zeta potential also controls how nutrients and waste transported across semi-permeable membranes in all cells, it dictates how bacteria can absorb nutrients and it controls the ability of any organism to osmoregulate. So by shifting the zeta potential we not only make water self-sterilizing, we also make it difficult for bacteria to function.
The zeta potential is related to and influenced by many mechanical, chemical and physio-chemical inter-reactions. Water chemistry is also all inter-connected, for example, if you change the pH or mono-valent to di-valent cation ratio, this will impact on the redox potential, zeta potential, water clarity, and bacterial activity. Indeed the simple act of just moving water or a liquid will impact on these parameters because it shifts the zeta potential. By way of example, fast flowing water will always have a lower bacteria concentration than slow flowing water, if you excursive the redox potential and oxygen content of your blood goes up.
In addition to zeta potential control we are combining this with catalytic reactions and free radical generation and by this approach we are now able to impart water with a residual ability to disinfect without the consumption or even the use of any chemicals.
AFM is an activated filter media with a very high surface area and negative -ve charge potential. Most filtration media products will remove particles down to 20 microns, but AFM removes particles down to 1 micron. Indeed AFM is 10 tomes better than sand at removing particles below 5 microns and 30 times better than other glass media, according to IFTS independent product analysis The only mechanism by which this is possible is by electrostatic attraction and molecular sieve adsorption
AFM has an engineered mesoporous silicate surface with metal oxide catalysts and a hydroxyl groups which give a negative -ve charged surface. The high charge attracts both +ve and -ve particles in the double water layer, see stern layer in photo above. Below is an actual electron microscope photo of the surface of AFM and a diagrammatic representation, showing the beads and structure of the beads
The high surface area with a -ve charge potential (zeta potential) is responsible for the adsorption of not only particles smaller than 20 microns, but particles smaller than 1 micron and even chemicals dissolved in the water.